Fans: Hand-held and Cockade
FANS have been around for centuries, probably since the dawn of time if we include waving big leaves in front of one’s face. The first man-made fan is agreed to be the rigid type, like those in the collage below. Made of wood, thick fabrics, leather, papier-mache, or big feathers closely stitched together into a single piece, the broad, flat screen was usually mounted onto a sturdy handle. These fans did not fold or collapse. The surface was always exquisitely painted or stitched with an array of scenes, flowers, religious imagery, animals, and more.
Called both a fixed fan or a hand screen, the two names convey the dual purpose of these gorgeous objects. A stiff, large, flat fan is arguably more efficient at moving air and cooling a person’s face than a lightweight fan. Perhaps not as easy to carry as the folding fans to come, but a fixed fan definitely did the intended job!
As a hand screen, it was even more valuable. Until well into the 20th century, houses were heated only by open fireplaces and stoves. The lack of insulation meant that many houses were drafty, requiring flames to be stoked hot and for the occupants to gather as close as possible to those flames.
A fixed fan was useful as a hand screen to protect a lady’s delicate skin from the fire’s glare and heat. Heaven forbid her cheeks get too ruddy! Worst yet, her perfectly applied wax-based make-up ran the risk of literally melting. Perish the thought! Holding an ornate, finely wrought, expensive hand screen in front of her face not only prevented the mentioned catastrophes, it was also another display of her wealth, excellent taste, and careful attention to her complexion (and by extension her whole body). We all know how critical this was, especially if she was still on the marriage market.
Folding fans came after the fixed fan, originating in the Far East, specifically Japan and China. No one knows exactly when they came into being and the inspirations for the designs are the stuff of legend… literally! One legend is that the Japanese modeled the folding wings of a bat.
Whatever the facts, it was not until the 1500s that the folding fan came to Europe by way of trade routes. It quickly became a stylish symbol of wealth and class, largely thanks to Caterina De’ Medici, who carried them in her trousseau at the French Court.
There are several different varieties of folding fans, based upon how they are constructed and designed. The cockade fan dates to the Medieval Era and is unique from the others insofar as being a hybrid. Made of broad, overlapping sticks or pleated paper attached to the two guards (as are most folded fans), the cockade fan differs by unfolding into a complete circle with the longer guards coming together as a handle.
The cockade fan‘s larger surface served as a hand screen, an added bonus since it was much more portable when folded than the one-piece hand screens. A folded cockade fan could fit into a reticule, or be tied to a lady’s wrist or waist with a pretty ribbon.
I have a large assortment of extant examples of fans (all types) from the period on Pinterest (click image to the left)
They are all so beautiful! I have a folding fan I found when we were cleaning my Grandmothers house after she passed. I love how intricate the designs are on the ones you have!
A treasure to keep for sure! Keep it safe, Cindie.
I remember the fixed fans at church when I was a child. We didn’t have air conditioning back in the day and the fans were in a pocket with the songbooks on the back of the pew in front of us. The local funeral home provided them as it advertised their services. Horrid, I know… now. Today, I love the folding fans and actually collect them. I have a soft spot for lace and beautiful designs. Years ago my friend, who taught Spanish, took a group of students on a field trip to Spain. I gave her money and asked that she buy me a Spanish fan. Heavy sigh… I love that fan. This was a delightful post. Thanks for sharing with us.
What a great memory! Actually, I think the fans from the funeral home is a great idea. People confronted with death are most open to considering eternal life. Or, as our pastor always said, he preferred officiating at a funeral over a wedding. LOL!
I’ve collected quite a few fans too, although none are antiques or anything like that. I just like them to go with my Regency ensembles. 🙂
I particularly like the two fixed fans on the right above. I like all the folding fans, particularly the lace one. I have a few folding fans myself including one I’ve had for over 60 years! My Mum bought it for me on a caravan holiday in Wales and it is plastic with a painted paper fan! I’m really surprised it’s lasted this long and it still works (wink wink) I loved this post thank you!
There are so many extant examples of fans, amazing compared to other old garment-type objects which can be rare.
A 60 year old family heirloom fan is amazing! You have a lot of really cool treasures from your family past, Glynis. I hope your kids and grandkids realize how special this is.