Crusie Lamp and Betty Lamp
The primitive Crusie Lamp was popular in the 1600’s to 1700’s, and still widely used into the 19th century by poor households. A simple lamp, the Crusie is basically a formed metal bowl to hold fuel (oil) with an indentation or channel to hold a wick. This was a durable improvement over the clay pottery lamps of ancient times. The word “crusie” is of Scottish origin and seems to have been derived from cruse, meaning “a vessel for oil.” In Cornwall they were called chills, and in the Channel Islands they were called cressets. The designs remained the same, but some lamps had multiple channels to accept multiple wicks to increase the lighting. Because unburned oil would drip from the wick onto the ground in waste, another bowl was placed under the the main bowl to catch this oil. These lamps are called Double Crusies or Phoebe Lamps. As a basic use item, Crusie Lamps were rarely ornate or made with fine metals, but there are always exceptions, as seen in the extant examples below.
Betty Lamps evolved in the 1700s as an improvement on the Crusie Lamp. In fact, the name itself comes from the German word “besser” which means “better, or to make better.”
Unlike the open Crusie, the Betty Lamp added a cover to the top to confine the heat, decrease smoke, and make the oil burn more efficiently. Most importantly, the addition of a wick holder inside the oil reservoir allowed oil from the wick to run back into the lamp’s bowl, preventing it from dripping onto the ground to be wasted. Although an improvement over other spout lamps (of which there were many varieties), Betty Lamps were still rather messy to deal with, so were most often used by farmers and tradesmen rather than the quarters of the wealthy.
Betty Lamps were typically found made of sheet steel, but are also found in tin or brass. They have a hook on top to hang (see the image to the right) or can be sat onto a flat surface. The simple Betty Lamp produced excellent light for that period of time. The larger the size and better the material used for the wick effected the light output.
Animal oils or grease were commonly used fuels. Fish oil gave the poorest light and was very smoky. Animal fats were better but still burned with an odor. Whale oil produced the best light, equal to that of two ordinary candles, so was most sought after but also the most expensive.
While more efficient, the Betty Lamp did not replace the Cruise Lamp. Both were very common and used well into the 19th century.